Yes you can, and no you can't. The answer to your question depends on what you mean by surfing websites on chrome without internet connection. So am going to give a brief explanation on why I answered with both yes and no.
Yes means that you can browse webpages that has been previously visited with an internet connection.This process is possible with the use of chrome's offline mode. Offline mode is a function in chrome's settings which can be enabled to allow revisits on webpages without an internet connection. This is how it works, when you enable offline mode on chrome, a local cache gets created for every webpage you visit using an internet connection. So the next time you visit the said webpages without an internet connection, a previously saved local cache of the webpages gets displayed as if browsing with an internet connection. Remember that the process won't work if offline mode is not enabled in the settings, as only webpages visited when enabled can be revisited when there's no internet connection.
No on the other hand means you can not visit a new webpage without an internet connection even if you've enabled offline mode. The offline mode will only bring up previously saved local cache of previously visited webpages when there was an internet connection. This simply means that if you haven't visited a webpage before with an internet connection and when offline mode was enabled, then no local cache was created for the said webpages, which means you can't access the said new webpages without an internet connection.