To answer this would take much more time than either of us have right now.
If you are interested in learning the how’s and why’s of fire protection design, may I suggest that you become familiar with the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). NFPA publishes the most broadly-accepted and often code-referenced or adopted fire codes in the world.
Specific to sprinkler systems but not to exclude the much broader applications, t will be worth purchasing a copy of NFPA-13 and sub-section standards 13D, 13E and 13R to start. There may be standpipes, fire department connections and a host of other features specific to a building’s requirements.
If you are working for an engineering firm, this is an essential first-step. In fact, almost all engineering firms have NFPA membership and access to the full range of standards (over 500 of them).
If you are actually seeking to design a system for a building but are not a design professional, you should retain the services of a registered professional engineer competent in fire protection design and licensed in the state of installation. In the alternate, a fire protection contractor often retains a NICET Level III or IV fire protection designer which is a generally recognized credential.
There is a lot that goes into the design of a fire protection system, including identifying the hazard group, the spacing of heads and coverage above and below obstructions, making use of available water pressure and tested flow rates or installing a fire pump. The use of dry systems, wet systems, pre-action systems, clean-agent systems, to name several, to suit specific applications, must be understood and applied. Testing, certification, protection of potable water systems, those and more are factors to be understood.