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What is the principle of a fire alarm?

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All Fire Alarm Systems essentially operate on the same principle. If a detector detects smoke or heat, or someone operates a break glass unit, then alarm sounders operate to warn others in the building that there may be  a fire and to evacuate.
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The principle of fire alarm is to warn the people around that there is an fire outbreak and directly contact the fire department near by.
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the fire alarm is designed to create a notification to nearby people that there is some danger. the fire alarm is designed by getting output as red color and high decibel sound so that the nearby people can easily get awake about the danger and they will move from the surroundings.
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A fire alarm system warns people when smoke, fire, carbon monoxide or other fire-related emergencies are detected. These alarms may be activated automatically from smoke detectors and heat detectors or may also be activated via manual fire alarm activation devices such as manual call points or pull stations. Alarms can be either motorized bells or wall mountable as manual call points or pull stations. Alarms can be either motorized bells or wall mountable sounders or horns. They can also be speaker strobes which sound an alarm, followed by a voice evacuation message which warns people inside the building not to use the elevators. Fire alarm sounders can be set to certain frequencies and different tones including low, medium, and high, depending on the country and manufacture of the device. Most fire alarm systems in Europe sound like a siren with alternating frequencies. Fire alarm electronic devices are known as horns in the United States and Canada, and can be either continuous or set to different codes. Fire alarm warning devices can also be set to different volume levels. 
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The fire alarm system can be set off automatically by smoke detectors, heat detectors or manually. These sensors are set to detect certain levels of heat or smoke that could be an indication of fire. A loud bell or a siren sometimes accompanied by blinking or flashing lights for individuals who have hearing problems, blasts to alert occupants in the building. 

In a fire alarm system there is always a smoke detector to detect smoke or fire.

There are two types of smoke detectors. These are the optical detector and the ionization detector. The optical smoke detector detects smoke by using light sensors (infrared LED). When smoke particles pass through the chamber of the optical detector, it scatters light that triggers the alarm. In the ionization detector, if the smoke particle enters the chamber of the ionization detector it will reduce air ionization inside the chamber of the ionization detector and triggers the alarm.
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The fire alarm working principle is based on thermistor used in the fire alarm circuit. This fire alarm circuit is used to identify and indicate an increase in temperature beyond certain value (temperature of an enclosed area).
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When smoke particles pass through the chamber of the optical detector, it scatters light that triggers the alarm, In this way the fire alarm works
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A fire alarm system is designed to detect a fire, alert people and emergency personnel about the fire, and monitor and control the spread of the fire. The detection principle of a fire alarm system is based on the detection of smoke, heat, or carbon monoxide in the environment. Heat detectors can either work on a fixed temperature basis or the rate of change in temperature. Smoke detectors are categorized into ionization, light scattering, and light obscuring types. Carbon monoxide detectors are used to indicate the outbreak of fire by sensing the level of carbon monoxide in the air. [1] Multi-sensor detectors combine inputs from both optical and heat sensors and process them using a sophisticated algorithm. [2] Manual call points or break glass call points are devices which enable personnel to raise the alarm by breaking the frangible element on the fascia; this then triggers the alarm. [3] In an Addressable Fire Alarm System, the cabling is replaced by a radio frequency (RF) network. The network consists of a central controller, which is connected to various detectors and call points. [2] Intelligent Fire Alarm Systems feature more advanced features such as smoke detection and carbon monoxide detection, while Wireless Fire Alarm Systems use wireless technology to connect the fire alarm control panel to the detectors and call points. [4]
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To alert the people that they are a fire on certain Place on establishment or Building on where they are staying or strolling 
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The principle of a fire alarm is to detect the presence of smoke, heat, or flames, and then signal an alarm to alert people in the vicinity of a potential fire. The basic components of a fire alarm system include detectors, alarms, and a control panel.

Detectors: Fire detectors are devices that sense the presence of smoke, heat, or flames. There are different types of detectors, including ionization detectors, photoelectric detectors, and heat detectors, and they can be installed in various locations depending on the specific needs of the building.

Alarms: When a detector senses a potential fire, it sends a signal to the alarm system, which triggers an audible or visual alert to notify people in the area of the potential danger. Alarms can be loud horns or sirens, flashing lights, or a combination of both.

Control Panel: The control panel is the "brain" of the fire alarm system. It receives signals from the detectors and triggers the alarms. It can also perform other functions, such as automatically contacting emergency services or shutting down HVAC systems to prevent the spread of smoke.

Overall, the principle of a fire alarm is to provide an early warning of a potential fire, allowing people to evacuate the building safely and quickly, and minimizing damage to property
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Smoke alarm detect fire by sensing small particles in the air using a couple of different kind of technologies . Once they detect those particles above certain treshold , they signal the alarm to sound so that one can be alert and found a better thing to do
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The principle of a fire alarm is that any object that is breathing down your throat or that you are trying to prevent from happening, is to you a potential fire. And so, if you feel something alive and dangerous is building up inside of you, you should probably be aware of it and take action to prevent it from happening.
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There are two types of smoke detectors. These are the optical detector and the ionization detector. The optical smoke detector detects smoke by using light sensors (infrared LED). When smoke particles pass through the chamber of the optical detector, it scatters light that triggers the alarm. In the ionization detector, if the smoke particle enters the chamber of the ionization detector it will reduce air ionization inside the chamber of the ionization detector and triggers the alarm.

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Smoke alarms detect fires by sensing small particles in the air using a couple of different kinds of technologies. Once they detect those particles above a certain threshold, they signal the alarm to sound so that you and your family can get to safety and call 911. Smoke alarms save lives.
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